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What Do a Presidential Candidates Know about Science?

This year’s rarely surprising presidential choosing resembles a past twin campaigns in during slightest one way. The possibilities of a twin vital parties— Democrat Hillary Clinton and Republican Donald Trump—provided answers to 20 questions about a many vicious science-based issues a U.S. faces in entrance years. Green Party claimant Jill Stein answered a questions as well. (Libertarian Party hopeful Gary Johnson has not responded so far.)

The questions were grown and polished by dozens of systematic organizations representing some-more than 10 million scientists and engineers after a crowd-sourcing bid led and concurrent by ScienceDebate.org. Scientific American, as a group’s media partner, skeleton to class a candidates’ answers in allege of a Sep 26 presidential debate.

“Sometimes politicians consider scholarship issues are singular to simply things like a check for NASA or NIH, and they destroy to comprehend that a President’s opinion toward and decisions about scholarship and investigate impact a open wellbeing, from a enlargement of a economy, to education, to open health,” Rush Holt, CEO of a American Association for a Advancement of Science and executive publisher of a Science family of journals, conspicuous in a matter concomitant a questions’ release. “Voters should have a possibility to know where a presidential possibilities stand. We wish reporters and electorate to ask these questions insistently of a possibilities and their discuss staff.”

We during Scientific American ask a readers and viewers, quite those with applicable technical expertise, to assistance by promulgation us their analyses of one or twin of a answers from a candidates. We will take these responses into account, along with a possess reporting, to make a final determination.

Our devise is to class a answers on a pass/fail basis, regulating a following 3 questions as a guide: Does a answer residence a doubt asked? Is it good supportive with honour to systematic accord about a issue? Does a response offer specific, applicable details?

Please e-mail your responses to editors@sciam.com with a difference “Science Debate 2016” in a theme line. We bewail that we will not be means to respond to all a answers individually.

Read a questions and answers subsequent and watch this space for a analysis on Sep 22.

1. Innovation

Science and engineering have been obliged for over half of a enlargement of a U.S. economy given WWII. But some reports doubt America’s continued caring in these areas. What policies will best safeguard that America stays during a forefront of innovation? 

Hillary Clinton (D): Since World War II, America’s caring in science- and engineering-based origination has supposing mercantile advantages along with vital advances in health, safety, security, and peculiarity of life. Education, research, and commercialization are all pivotal to America’s success.  As President, we will work to strengthen any of these core elements of a ecosystem and enthuse public-private partnerships between them to safeguard that America stays during a forefront of innovation.

Advances in scholarship and engineering start with education. We need concept preschool, to get a kids off to a good start; good K-12 schools and teachers in any ZIP code; and to put aloft preparation in strech for everybody with debt-free college and support for high-quality apprenticeships and training programs. We need clever STEM programming in any school, and we need to yield any open propagandize tyro with entrance to preparation in mechanism science.

Both simple and unsentimental investigate are vital drivers of innovation. As President, we will work with Congress to safeguard that supervision appropriation of investigate is sufficient to concede for multi-year planning, scrutiny of rising investigate areas, and inflation-adjusted costs. Funding is indispensable not usually for a simple scholarship investigate agencies and a vast scholarship and engineering idea agencies though also for a broader star of agencies that are increasingly contingent on STEM for their missions.

The origination boon comes from a commercialization of investigate results. The initial step is what universities call “technology transfer” and a medical village calls “translation”—demonstrating a use of investigate formula in use and pity a trust with a business community. The supervision has a vicious purpose to play during this theatre by opening entrance to and pity government-funded investigate results. we will support a enlargement of collaborative consortia that accelerate a origination of new industries while providing essential feedback to researchers. As partial of my devise to emanate some-more good-paying jobs, we will also deposit in “Make it in America” partnerships that will make America a initial choice for prolongation by harnessing informal strengths, ancillary manufacturers adult and down a supply chain, and ensuring ubiquitous competitiveness by improving industrial appetite potency by one-third within a decade. 

Donald Trump (R): Innovation has always been one of a good by-products of giveaway marketplace systems.  Entrepreneurs have always found entries into markets by giving consumers some-more options for a products they desire.  The supervision should do all it can to revoke barriers to entrance into markets and should work during formulating a business sourroundings where satisfactory trade is as vicious as giveaway trade.  Similarly, a sovereign supervision should enthuse origination in a areas of space scrutiny and investment in investigate and enlargement opposite a extended landscape of academia.  Though there are augmenting final to lessen spending and to change a sovereign budget, we contingency make a joining to deposit in science, engineering, medical and other areas that will make a lives of Americans better, safer and some-more prosperous. 

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded.

Jill Stein (G): Virtually any member of a 2016 Platform contains elements approaching to have certain effects on innovation. These embody a meridian movement plan, a giveaway open preparation and termination of tyro debt proposals, and a Medicare for All plank. Vast resources will be liberated for investment in open RD by reduced Pentagon spending. Millions of people now hobbled by misery and underperforming schools will be means for a initial time in American story to pierce their talents to bear on a problems of a 21st century. A usually economy, with vital salary and paid ill leave, can be distant some-more innovative than one where origination is dynamic by a relations handful of corporate executives and Pentagon planners.

2. Research

Many systematic advances need long-term investment to account investigate over a duration of longer than a two, four, or 6 year terms that oversee domestic cycles. In a stream meridian of budgetary constraints, what are your scholarship and engineering investigate priorities and how will we change short-term contra long-term funding?

Hillary Clinton (D): Science and engineering not usually yield a inclination and services we humour and use on a daily basis—they also assistance urge opposite disease, confidence threats, unmet appetite needs, a impacts of meridian change, environmental degradation, and many other vicious issues with inhabitant and tellurian reach. Advancing scholarship and record will be among my tip priorities as President.

Historically, federally saved simple research–often finished though a sold concentration in mind and alone prolonged term–has yielded breakthrough discoveries of new trust and technologies. This trust and these technologies have, by a appetite of innovation, remade whole sectors of industry, fueled mercantile growth, and combined high-paying jobs.

I share a concerns of a scholarship and record community, including many in a industry, that a United States is underinvesting in research. Federal appropriation of simple investigate amounts to reduction than one percent of annual sovereign spending, nonetheless it is an investment that pays vast dividends. we trust it is essential that we strengthen a investigate capacity, by appropriation gifted immature investigators, looking for ways to prioritize “high-risk, high-reward” projects that have a intensity to renovate whole fields, and enhancing partnerships between government, universities, and a private sector. 

Donald Trump (R): The grounds of this doubt is accurately correct—scientific advances do need prolonged tenure investment.  This is given we contingency have programs such as a viable space module and institutional investigate that offer as incubators to origination and a enrichment of scholarship and engineering in a array of fields.  We should also pierce together stakeholders and inspect what a priorities ought to be for a nation.  Conservation of resources and anticipating ways to feed a universe desire a clever joining as do dedicated investment in creation a universe a healthier place.  The republic is best served by a President and administration that have a prophesy for a greater, softened America.  

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded.

Jill Stein (G): The biggest plea now before us is meridian change. We will place innovative breakthroughs in a scholarship and record compared with slackening of hothouse gases and a building of a volatile multitude that can withstand stream and destiny meridian change during a really tip of a investigate priorities. 

Presidents are means to impact prolonged tenure RD priorities by formulating institutions focused on investigate like a National Science Foundation and a National Institutes of Health that are to some limit insulated from short-term domestic cycles. We will revisit these institutions–their charge, focus, and operations–to safeguard that they’re behaving as expected. We will demeanour for opportunities and mechanisms whereby scholarship routine can be finished some-more democratic, and some-more manageable to a preferences and needs of normal citizens.

3. Climate Change

The Earth’s meridian is changing and domestic contention has spin divided over both a scholarship and a best response. What are your views on meridian change, and how would your administration act on those views?

Hillary Clinton (D): When it comes to meridian change, a scholarship is pure clear. Climate change is an obligatory hazard and a defining plea of a time and a impacts are already being felt during home and around a world. That’s given as President, we will work both domestically and internationally to safeguard that we build on new swell and continue to condense hothouse gas wickedness over a entrance years as a scholarship clearly tells us we must.

I will set 3 goals that we will grasp within 10 years of holding bureau and that will make America a purify appetite superpower of a 21st century:

  • Generate half of a electricity from purify sources, with half a billion solar panels commissioned by a finish of my initial term.
  • Cut appetite waste in American homes, schools, hospitals and offices by a third and make American prolongation a cleanest and many fit in a world.
  • Reduce American oil expenditure by a third by cleaner fuels and some-more fit cars, boilers, ships, and trucks.

To get there, my administration will exercise and build on a operation of wickedness and potency standards and purify appetite taxation incentives that have finished a United States a tellurian personality in a conflict opposite meridian change. These standards are also essential for safeguarding a health of a children, saving American households and businesses billions of dollars in appetite costs, and formulating thousands of good essential jobs. 

These standards set a floor, not a ceiling. As President, we will launch a $60 billion Clean Energy Challenge to partner with those states, cities, and farming communities opposite a republic that are prepared to take a lead on purify appetite and appetite efficiency, giving them a flexibility, collection and resources they need to succeed. 

Donald Trump (R): There is still many that needs to be investigated in a margin of “climate change.”  Perhaps a best use of a singular financial resources should be in traffic with creation certain that any chairman in a universe has purify water.  Perhaps we should concentration on expelling delayed diseases around a universe like malaria.  Perhaps we should concentration on efforts to boost food prolongation to keep gait with an ever-growing universe population.  Perhaps we should be focused on building appetite sources and appetite prolongation that alleviates a need for coherence on hoary fuels.  We contingency confirm on how best to ensue so that we can make lives better, safer and some-more prosperous.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded.

Jill Stein (G): Climate change is a biggest existential hazard that amiability has ever faced. Here is how we will act to residence it:

Enact an puncture Green New Deal to spin a waves on meridian change, revitalise a economy and make wars for oil obsolete. Initiate a WWII-scale inhabitant mobilization to hindrance meridian change, a biggest hazard to amiability in a history. Create 20 million jobs by transitioning to 100% purify renewable appetite by 2030, and investing in open transit, tolerable agriculture, assign and replacement of vicious infrastructure, including ecosystems.

• Implement a Just Transition that empowers those communities and workers many impacted by meridian change and a transition to a immature economy. Ensure that any workman transposed by a change divided from hoary fuels will accept full income and advantages as they transition to choice work.

• Enact appetite democracy formed on public, village and workman tenure of a appetite system. Treat appetite as a tellurian right.

Redirect investigate supports from hoary fuels into renewable appetite and conservation. Build a inhabitant intelligent electricity grid that can pool and store appetite from a farrago of renewable sources, giving a republic clean, democratically-controlled, energy.

• End mortal appetite descent and compared infrastructure: fracking, connect sands, offshore drilling, oil trains, mountaintop removal, healthy gas pipelines, and uranium mines. Halt any investment in hoary fuel infrastructure, including healthy gas, and proviso out all hoary fuel appetite plants. Phase out chief appetite and finish chief subsidies. End all subsidies for hoary fuels and levy a hothouse gas price / taxation to assign polluters for a repairs they have created.

• Support a clever enforceable tellurian meridian covenant that boundary tellurian warming to no some-more than 1.5 degrees Celsius and provides usually financial remuneration to building countries.

• Support organic and regenerative agriculture, permaculture, and tolerable forestry.

• Enact stronger environmental probity laws and measures to safeguard that low-income and communities of tone are not disproportionately impacted.

4. Biodiversity

Biological farrago provides food, fiber, medicines, purify H2O and many other products and services on that we count any day. Scientists are anticipating that a accumulation and variability of life is abating during an shocking rate as a outcome of tellurian activity. What stairs will we take to strengthen biological diversity? 

Hillary Clinton (D): Conserving biodiversity is essential to progressing a peculiarity of life. Healthy soils yield a substructure for farming capability and assistance catch carbon; wetlands soak adult floodwaters and pollutants and strengthen a communities; forests filter a H2O and keep it clean; bees and other pollinators are essential to a food supply; and coral reefs and coastal marshes are nurseries for a fisheries.  Although we have finished substantial swell safeguarding a sourroundings and conserving a healthy resources, meridian change, pollution, medium destruction, unsustainable supervision practices, introduction of invasive class and other army poise vicious threats to biodiversity and a proceed of life.

We need to combine opposite all sectors and during all levels to preserve a healthy resources and contend a viability of a ecosystems.  we believe, for example, that we should be doing some-more to delayed and retreat a decrease of at-risk wildlife class before they strech a margin of extinction. That is given we will work to double a State and Tribal Wildlife Grants module to assistance states, genealogical nations, and internal communities act progressing to preserve wildlife before they spin threatened or endangered.

The 100th anniversary of a inhabitant park complement is also an event to re-energize America’s unapproachable land and wildlife assign traditions. we will settle an American Parks Trust Fund to scale adult and update how we strengthen and raise a healthy treasures, and to softened strengthen wildlife medium opposite a country.

Internationally, we need larger team-work to residence disappearing biodiversity.  My Administration will work collaboratively with other nations to allege biodiversity science, serve a bargain of a causes of biodiversity loss, and take movement to lessen them.  We will share information about a assign successes, including a inhabitant parks, fish and wildlife retreat systems, and sea pot to assist other nations operative to strengthen their healthy resources and preserve biodiversity.  And we will work collaboratively to finish trafficking in wildlife and illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing that threatens a oceans.

Donald Trump (R): For too long, Presidents and a executive bend of a sovereign supervision have continued to raise their strech and impact.  Today, we have agencies filled with unelected officials who have been essay manners and regulations that support to special interests and that criticise a foundational idea of a supervision that should be manageable to a people.  Our inaugurated member have finished tiny to urge their oaths of bureau and have abrogated their responsibilities.  When these resources occur, there is an imbalance that rewards special interests and punishes a people who should advantage a many from a word of class and medium in a United States.  In a Trump administration, there will be common governance of a open lands and we will elect state and internal governments to strengthen a wildlife and fisheries.  Laws that lean a beam toward special interests contingency be mutated to change a needs of multitude with a refuge of a essential vital resources.  My administration will strike that change by bringing all stakeholders to a list to settle a best proceed to seeking and sourroundings that balance.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded.

Jill Stein (G): Protecting biodiversity is an intensely vicious and mostly ignored priority. Here is how we will act to strengthen biodiversity:

• Protect a open lands, H2O supplies, biological diversity, parks, and pollinators. Ban neonicotinoids and other pesticides that bluster a participation of bees, butterflies, and other pollinators.

• Label GMOs, and put a duration on new GMOs and pesticides until they are proven safe.

• Support organic and regenerative agriculture, permaculture, and tolerable forestry.

• Protect a rights of destiny generations. Adopt a Precautionary Principle. When an activity poses threats of mistreat to tellurian health or a environment, in a deficiency of design systematic accord that it is safe, precautionary measures should be taken. The proponent of an activity, rather than a public, should bear a weight of proof.

• Invest in purify air, water, food and dirt for everyone. 

• Enact stronger environmental probity laws and measures to safeguard that low-income and communities of tone are not disproportionately impacted by deleterious wickedness and other disastrous environmental and health effects.

• Support acclimatisation to sustainable, nontoxic materials and a use of closed-loop, 0 rubbish processes.

5. The Internet

The Internet has spin a substructure of economic, social, law enforcement, and troops activity. What stairs will we take to strengthen unprotected infrastructure and institutions from cyber attack, and to yield for inhabitant confidence while safeguarding personal remoteness on electronic inclination and a internet? 

Hillary Clinton (D): As President, we will quarrel to safeguard that a Internet stays a space for giveaway exchange, providing all people equal entrance to trust and ideas. While we contingency strengthen this sell and a remoteness of individuals, we contingency also deposit in cybersecurity, that is not usually essential to a inhabitant and mercantile security, though will spin increasingly vicious as inclination opposite sectors are networked.

Since my time in a Senate, we have worked opposite a aisle to urge a nation’s cybersecurity. Internet leisure and confidence were during a forefront of my work as Secretary of State, and we contingency safeguard this bid continues into a subsequent administration. we upheld a USA Freedom Act enacted in 2015. we also support a bipartisan bid led by Sen. Warner and Rep. McCaul, to emanate a inhabitant elect on digital confidence and encryption to assistance uncover a proceed forward.

This is an emanate that spans both a open and private sector. we will build on a Obama Administration’s Cybersecurity National Action Plan, modernizing a government-wide cybersecurity and sovereign IT and lenient a sovereign Chief Information Security Officer. we also support public-private partnership on cybersecurity innovation, along with implementing a National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework. The subsequent President will be confronted with these challenges, and will need common clarity approaches to change cybersecurity with personal privacy. The subsequent boss contingency be means to solemnly residence these nuanced issues.

As boss we will make it pure that a United States will yield cyberattacks usually like any other attack. We will be prepared with vicious political, mercantile and troops responses and we will deposit in safeguarding a bureaucratic networks and inhabitant infrastructure. we trust a United States should lead a universe in sourroundings a manners of cyberspace. If America doesn’t, others will. 

Donald Trump (R): The United States supervision should not view on a possess citizens.  That will not occur in a Trump administration.  As for safeguarding a Internet, any conflict on a Internet should be counsel a provocative act that requires a pinnacle in word and, during a minimum, a proportional response that identifies and afterwards eliminates threats to a Internet infrastructure. 

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded.

Jill Stein (G): The Internet and a entrance to information it provides is an intensely vicious apparatus for a whole world. Here is how we will strengthen and urge a Internet:

• Protect a giveaway Internet. Oppose a Online Piracy Act and all other legislation that would criticise leisure and equivalence on a Internet.

• Vigorously urge net neutrality.

• Support open broadband Internet.

• Negotiate ubiquitous covenant banning cyberwarfare; emanate a new UN group tasked with identifying a sources of cyber attacks.

6. Mental Health

Mental illness is among a many unpleasant and stigmatized diseases, and a National Institute of Mental Health estimates it costs America some-more than $300 billion per year. What will we do to revoke a tellurian and mercantile costs of mental illness?

Hillary Clinton (D): Nearly a fifth of all adults in a United States, some-more than 40 million people, are coping with a mental health issue. Close to 14 million people live with a vicious mental illness such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Moreover, many of these people have additional complicating life circumstances, such as drug or ethanol addiction, homelessness, or impasse with a rapist probity system. Veterans are in strident need of mental health care, with tighten to 20 percent of those returning from a Iraq and Afghanistan wars experiencing post-traumatic highlight or depression. And a problem is not singular to adults: an estimated 17 million children in a United States trust mental health issues, as do one in 4 college students. Too many Americans are being left to face mental health issues on their own, and too many people are unwell betimes from compared health conditions. We contingency do better. 

That’s given we recently expelled a extensive and minute devise to residence this vicious emanate that impacts so many American families. Under my plan, we’ll enthuse early diagnosis and intervention, including rising a inhabitant beginning for self-murder prevention. We’ll confederate a nation’s mental and earthy health caring systems so that health caring smoothness focuses on a “whole person,” and significantly raise community-based diagnosis opportunities. We’ll urge rapist probity outcomes by training law coercion officers in predicament intervention, and prioritizing diagnosis over jail for low-level, non-violent offenders. We’ll make mental health relation to a full limit of a law. We’ll urge entrance to housing and pursuit opportunities. And we’ll deposit in mind and behavioral investigate and building protected and effective treatments.

I’m unapproachable of my record of advocating for larger protections and stretched entrance to diagnosis for people with mental health conditions, including co-sponsoring a Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act. My idea is that within my time in bureau as president, Americans will no longer apart mental health from earthy health when it comes to entrance to caring or peculiarity of treatment. The subsequent era contingency grow adult meaningful that mental health is a pivotal member of altogether health and there is no shame, stigma, or barriers to seeking out care.

Donald Trump (R): This is one of a good maturation tragedies in America today.  States are shortening their commitments to mental health diagnosis and a jails are filled with those who need mental health care.  Any mental health reforms contingency be enclosed in a efforts to remodel medical in ubiquitous in a country.  We contingency make a investment in treating a associate adults who humour from vicious mental illness.  This includes creation certain that we concede family members to be some-more endangered in a sum caring of those who are exceedingly mentally ill.  We contingency safeguard that a inhabitant supervision provides a support to state and internal governments to pierce mental health caring to a people during a internal level.  This whole margin of seductiveness contingency be examined and a extensive resolution set contingency be grown so that we can keep people protected and productive.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded.

Jill Stein (G): As partial of a Medicare for All concept health caring complement we need a mental health caring complement that safeguards tellurian dignity, respects particular autonomy, and protects supportive consent. In serve to full appropriation for mental health care, this means creation it easier for a chronically mentally ill to request for and accept Supplemental Security Income, and appropriation programs to boost open recognition of and attraction to a needs of a mentally ill and differently abled.

We contingency safeguard that a supervision takes all stairs required to entirely diagnose and yield a mental health conditions ensuing from use in quarrel zones, including post-traumatic highlight disorder.

We will also redeem prisoners with diagnosed mental disorders to secure mental health diagnosis centers, and safeguard psychological and medical caring and reconstruction services for mentally ill prisoners.

7. Energy

Strategic supervision of a US appetite portfolio can have absolute economic, environmental, and unfamiliar routine impacts. How do we see a appetite landscape elaborating over a subsequent 4 to 8 years, and, as President, what will your appetite devise be? 

Hillary Clinton (D): The subsequent decade is not usually vicious to assembly a meridian challenge, though offers a extensive event to safeguard America becomes a 21st century purify appetite superpower. I reject a idea that we as a republic are forced to select between a economy, a environment, and a security. The law is that with a intelligent appetite routine we can allege all 3 simultaneously. we will set a following bold, inhabitant goals—and get to work on Day 1, implementing my devise to grasp them within 10 years of holding office: 

  • Generate half of a electricity from purify sources, with half a billion solar panels commissioned by a finish of my initial term.
  • Cut appetite waste in American homes, schools, hospitals and offices by a third and make American prolongation a cleanest and many fit in a world.
  • Reduce American oil expenditure by a third by cleaner fuels and some-more fit cars, boilers, ships, and trucks.

My devise will broach on a oath President Obama finished during a Paris meridian conference—without relying on meridian deniers in Congress to pass new legislation. This includes:

  • Defending, implementing, and fluctuating intelligent wickedness and potency standards, including a Clean Power Plan and standards for cars, trucks, and appliances that are already assisting purify a air, save families money, and quarrel meridian change.
  • Launching a $60 billion Clean Energy Challenge to partner with states, cities, and farming communities to cut CO wickedness and raise purify energy, including for low-income families. 
  • Investing in purify appetite infrastructure, innovation, prolongation and workforce development to make a U.S. economy some-more rival and emanate good-paying jobs and careers. 
  • Ensuring a hoary fuel prolongation holding place now is protected and obliged and that areas too supportive for appetite prolongation are taken off a table. 
  • Reforming leasing and raise purify appetite prolongation on open lands and waters tenfold within a decade.
  • Cutting a billions of greedy taxation subsidies oil and gas companies have enjoyed for too prolonged and deposit in purify energy.
  • Cutting methane emissions opposite a economy and put in place clever standards for shortening leaks from both new and existent sources.
  • Revitalizing spark communities by ancillary locally driven priorities and make them an engine of U.S. mercantile enlargement in a 21st century, as they have been for generations. 

Donald Trump (R): It should be a idea of a American people and their supervision to grasp appetite autonomy as shortly as possible.  Energy autonomy means exploring and building any probable appetite source including wind, solar, chief and bio-fuels.  A abounding marketplace complement will concede consumers to settle a best sources of appetite for destiny consumption.  Further, with a United States, Canada and Mexico as a pivotal appetite producers in a world, we will live in a safer, some-more prolific and some-more moneyed world.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded.

Jill Stein (G): Our Green New Deal devise prioritizes a fast transition to 100% purify renewable energy. Our appetite devise will also include:

• Enact appetite democracy formed on public, village and workman tenure of a appetite system. Treat appetite as a tellurian right.

• Redirect investigate supports from hoary fuels into renewable appetite and conservation. Build a inhabitant intelligent electricity grid that can pool and store appetite from a farrago of renewable sources, giving a republic clean, democratically-controlled energy.

• End mortal appetite descent and compared infrastructure: fracking, connect sands, offshore drilling, oil trains, mountaintop removal, healthy gas pipelines, and uranium mines. Halt any investment in hoary fuel infrastructure, including healthy gas, and proviso out all hoary fuel appetite plants. Phase out chief appetite and finish chief subsidies. End all subsidies for hoary fuels and levy a hothouse gas price / taxation to assign polluters for a repairs they have created.

8. Education

American students have depressed in many ubiquitous rankings of scholarship and math performance, and a open in ubiquitous is being faced with an expanding array of vital routine hurdles that are heavily shabby by formidable science. How would your administration work to safeguard all students including women and minorities are prepared to residence 21st century hurdles and, further, that a open has an adequate turn of STEM preparation in an age dominated by formidable scholarship and technology?

Hillary Clinton (D): In 2020, estimates uncover there will be 1.4 million computer-science associated jobs in a United States, though stream projections uncover we usually have 400,000 mechanism scholarship graduates to fill them. Less than one in 5 high propagandize students has ever taken a mechanism scholarship course; usually 7 percent of a country’s high schools offer Advanced Placement courses in mechanism science; and reduction than 40 percent of high propagandize graduates have taken a prolongation course. We contingency do some-more to yield a students and workforce with a skills they need to get hired and allege in their careers.

Every tyro should have a event to learn mechanism scholarship by a time they connoisseur high school. we support a Obama Administration’s “Computer Science for All” initiative. And we will take stairs to boost investment and scale instruction and doctrine programs that assistance urge tyro feat or boost college enrollment and execution in mechanism scholarship fields. These stairs will assistance prepared a different tech workforce of tomorrow. At a same time, we need to raise a pool of mechanism scholarship teachers so that we sight an additional 50,000 CS teachers in a subsequent decade.

Strong STEM programming in any open propagandize is vicious to a nation’s success and to shortening mercantile and amicable inequality. But today, reduction than 40 percent of high propagandize graduates have taken a prolongation course, and a miss of STEM programming is even some-more conspicuous in schools with high concentrations of students of color. We will support states, cities, and charters in building innovative schools, like Denver’s School of Science and Technology and a Science Leadership Academy of Philadelphia, that have demonstrated success during enchanting underrepresented populations in scholarship and technology.

Beyond high school, we need to do some-more support a Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Hispanic-Serving Institutions, and other Minority-Serving Institutions that sight a vast share of scientists and engineers of color. In serve to creation it probable for any tyro to attend a four-year open college or university debt-free, we will emanate a special account to support low-cost, modest-endowment HBCUs, HSIs, and MSIs. And we need to make certain that a four-year grade is not a usually pathway to a middle-class life, including in record and engineering careers, by ancillary high-quality tutelage programs and training.

Donald Trump (R): There are a horde of STEM programs already in existence.  What a sovereign supervision should do is to make certain that educational opportunities are accessible for everyone.  This means we contingency concede marketplace influences to pierce better, aloft peculiarity educational resources to some-more children.  Our cities are a case-study in what not to do in that we do not have choice options for those who need entrance to softened educational situations.  Our top-down-one-size-fits-all proceed to preparation is unwell and is indeed deleterious educational outcomes for a children.  If we are vicious about changing a instruction of a educational standing, we contingency change a educational models and concede a biggest probable array of options for educating a children.  The supervision of a open preparation institutions should be finished during a state and internal level, not during a Department of Education.  Until some-more choices are supposing in a cities, those who surveillance their regard about educational outcomes can't be taken seriously.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded.

Jill Stein (G): Education is critically vicious to a destiny of a world. Here is how we will safeguard that a students accept a best preparation possible:

• Guarantee tuition-free, world-class open preparation from pre-school by university.

• Abolish tyro debt to giveaway a era of Americans from debt slavery and liberate mercantile barriers to aloft education.

• Protect a open propagandize systems from privatization. 

• Replace Common Core with curriculum grown by educators, not corporations, with submit from relatives and communities.

• Restore arts, song and distraction to propagandize curriculums.

• Ensure racially inclusive, supportive and applicable curriculums.

• Recognize misery as a pivotal barrier to learning. Ensure that kids come to propagandize prepared to learn: healthy, nourished, secure and giveaway from violence.

• Increase sovereign appropriation of open schools to equate open propagandize funding.

9. Public Health

Public health efforts like smoking cessation, dipsomaniac pushing laws, vaccination, and H2O fluoridation have softened health and capability and save millions of lives. How would we urge sovereign investigate and a open health complement to softened strengthen Americans from rising diseases and other open health threats, such as antibiotic resistant superbugs?

Hillary Clinton (D): America has witnessed outrageous successes with some of a vital open health initiatives, such as smoking relinquishment and H2O fluoridation. Yet, we have a prolonged proceed to go to strengthen a open health complement to yield adequate word for a communities. Recent events like lead decay in celebration H2O in Flint, Michigan, enlargement of antibiotic resistant microbes, rash widespread of Aedes mosquitos that widespread pleasant diseases like Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya, a enlargement of soporific addiction, and a stability need to residence HIV make pure a shortcomings of a open health complement and a obligatory need for improvements.

But notwithstanding these threats, we are not investing in open health preparedness and puncture response a proceed we should to keep a families and communities safe. A 2015 investigate found that spending on open health had depressed some-more than 9 percent given 2008. And capricious long-term budgets leave a open health agencies contingent on puncture appropriations—meaning that when Congress fails to step up, communities are left though a resources they need, vaccines languish in development, and some-more people get sick.

That is given as President, we will emanate a Public Health Rapid Response Fund, with consistent, year-to-year budgets, to softened capacitate a Centers for Disease Control, a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, a Federal Emergency Management Agency, state and internal open health departments, sanatorium systems, and other sovereign agencies to fast and aggressively respond to vital open health crises and pandemics. we will also safeguard that a supervision has clever caring and is orderly to softened support and work with people on a belligerent confronting open health challenges.

In addition, we need to do some-more to boost a preparedness for biological threats and bioweapons; to support investigate for new justification tests, healing treatments, and vaccines for rising diseases; to build ability in open health departments; to sight a subsequent cadre of open health professionals and safeguard that open health and environmental health practices are customary to a educations of medical students; and to yield resources for states and internal governments to devise for complex, multi-faceted open health threats, like a impacts of meridian change, and build some-more volatile communities.

Donald Trump (R): The import of a doubt is that one contingency yield some-more resources to investigate and open health enterprises to make certain we stay brazen of intensity health risks.  In a time of singular resources, one contingency safeguard that a republic is stealing a biggest crash for a buck.  We can't simply chuck income during these institutions and assume that a republic will be good served.  What we ought to concentration on is assessing where we need to be as a republic and afterwards requesting resources to those areas where we need a many work.  Our efforts to support investigate and open health initiatives will have to be offset with other final for wanting resources.  Working with Congress—the people’s representatives—my administration will work to settle inhabitant priorities and afterwards we will work to make certain that adequate resources are reserved to grasp a goals.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded.

Jill Stein (G): A Medicare For All singular payer medical complement would place health as a bottom line rather than courtesy profits, that is elemental for improving open health. 

A Medicare For All complement would:

  • allow health information to be many-sided on a population-wide scale (much of it is now hold in tip as exclusive information by private companies like health insurers) so that trends and outbreaks could be monitored. 
  • permit comment of a health needs of a whole competition to be dynamic so that priorities could be set formed on areas of need and supports could be given to institutions that would concentration on solutions to priority areas.
  • drive open routine to pursue a larger open health and medicine proceed given carrying a healthier competition would save money.
  • cover any chairman vital in a United States and would mislay financial barriers to care. This means that people with spreading diseases and other conditions that impact a competition would have entrance to caring when they need it. 

10. Water

The long-term confidence of uninformed H2O reserve is threatened by a dizzying array of aging infrastructure, aquifer depletion, pollution, and meridian variability. Some American communities have mislaid entrance to water, inspiring their viability and destroying home values.  If we are elected, what stairs will we take to safeguard entrance to purify H2O for all Americans?

Hillary Clinton (D): Chronic underinvestment in a nation’s celebration and wastewater systems has disgusted and endangered Americans from Flint, Michigan, to Ohio and West Virginia. Outdated and unsound wastewater systems liberate some-more than 900 billion gallons of untreated sewage a year, posing health risks to humans and wildlife life, disrupting ecosystems, and disproportionately impacting communities of color. In addition, many struggling communities around a United States have singular or no entrance to clean, protected water.

We will deposit in infrastructure and work with states, municipalities, and a private zone to pierce a H2O systems into a 21st century and yield all Americans entrance to clean, protected celebration water.

Climate change is also triggering changes in continue patterns, including a augmenting superiority of long, tough droughts that poise a apocalyptic risk to a health and resources of American communities, quite in a West. The sovereign supervision contingency spin a softened partner in ancillary state and locally-led efforts to urge H2O security. To that end, we will emanate a coordinated, multi-agency Western Water Partnership to assistance account H2O efficiency, consideration, and infrastructure modernization projects opposite a region, including poignant new investments in H2O reuse and reclamation. 

We will also work to pierce slicing corner efficiency, diagnosis and reuse solutions to a nation’s H2O hurdles by substantiating a new Water Innovation Lab. The Lab will pierce civic H2O managers, farmers and tribes together with engineers, entrepreneurs, conservationists and other stakeholders to rise unsentimental and serviceable technologies and strategies that can be deployed by internal H2O utilities, farming and industrial H2O users, and environmental replacement projects opposite a country.

Donald Trump (R): This might be a many vicious emanate we face as a republic for a subsequent generation.  Therefore, we contingency make a investment in a uninformed H2O infrastructure to safeguard entrance to affordable uninformed H2O solutions for everyone.  We contingency try all options to embody creation desalinization some-more affordable and operative to build a placement infrastructure to pierce this wanting apparatus to where it is indispensable for a adults and those who furnish a food of a world.  This contingency be a tip priority for my administration.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded.

Jill Stein (G): We need a inhabitant extensive H2O plan. 

Clean H2O is a tellurian right. The Green New Deal’s concentration on infrastructure will assistance forestall destiny tainted celebration H2O crises like that in Flint, Michigan.

Rejuvenating a sovereign Superfund module will assistance purify adult a soiled celebration H2O of millions of Americans.

11. Nuclear Power

Nuclear appetite can accommodate electricity direct though producing hothouse gases, though it raises inhabitant confidence and environmental concerns. What is your devise for a use, expansion, or phasing out of chief power, and what stairs will we take to monitor, conduct and secure chief materials over their life cycle?

Hillary Clinton (D): Meeting a meridian plea is too vicious to extent a collection accessible in this fight. Nuclear power—which accounts for some-more than 60 percent of a 0 CO appetite era today—is one of those tools. we will work to safeguard that a meridian advantages of a existent chief appetite plants that are protected to work are reasonably valued and boost investment in a research, enlargement and deployment of modernized chief power. At a same time, we contingency continue to deposit in a confidence of a chief materials during home, and urge coordination between federal, state, and internal authorities. We contingency also find to revoke a volume of chief element worldwide—working with other countries so minimize a use of weapons-grade element for polite chief programs.

Donald Trump (R): Nuclear appetite is a essential source of appetite and should be partial of an all-the-above module for providing appetite for America prolonged into a future.  We can make chief appetite safer, and a outputs are unusual given a investment we should make.  Nuclear appetite contingency be an constituent partial of appetite autonomy for America.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded

Jill Stein (G): Nuclear physics record is unsafe, expensive, and unwashed from a mining of uranium to a ordering of spent fuel. As such we will finish subsidies to a chief courtesy immediately and proviso out chief appetite over a 10 year timeline. Existing chief rubbish will be rubbed with onsite dry cask storage of high-level rubbish into perpetuity. No ride of chief waste.

12. Food

Agriculture involves a formidable change of land and appetite use, workman health and safety, H2O use and quality, and entrance to healthy and affordable food, all of that have inputs of design trust from science. How would we conduct a US farming craving to a tip advantage in a many tolerable way? 

Hillary Clinton (D): America’s farming communities distortion during a heart of what creates this republic great. The affordability of a food, a autonomy and sophistication of a appetite supply, and a strength of a tiny communities all count on a colourful farming America.

As president, my administration will do some-more to support family farms by doubling appropriation for a Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development program; building clever and tolerable internal food systems; and providing a focused reserve net by stability to make swell in targeting sovereign resources in commodity payment, stand insurance, and disaster assistance programs to support family operations. 

And we will coax investment to assistance appetite a farming economy, including by expanding entrance to equity collateral for farming businesses by augmenting a array of Rural Business Investment Companies, that make equity investments in tiny farming businesses—driving enlargement and formulating jobs in farming areas, and ancillary investments in purify energy. 

We contingency also acknowledge a other issues confronting a farming communities. We need to raise health caring entrance to all areas of a country, that includes broadening telemedicine. As president, we will try ways in that we can raise tele-health payment underneath Medicare and other programs, including federally competent health centers and farming health clinics. 

Donald Trump: The import of your doubt is that there should be executive control of American cultivation by a sovereign government.  That is totally inappropriate.  The cultivation courtesy should be giveaway to find a best solutions by a marketplace system.  That said, a prolongation of food is a inhabitant confidence emanate and should accept a courtesy of a sovereign supervision when it comes to providing confidence for a farmers and ranchers opposite waste to nature.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded

Jill Stein (G): We need a food complement that is healthy and sustainable. To this end, we will:

• Invest in purify air, water, food and dirt for everyone. 

• Ban neonicotinoids and other pesticides that bluster a participation of bees, butterflies, and other pollinators.

• Label GMOs, and put a duration on GMOs and pesticides until they are proven safe.

• Support organic and regenerative agriculture, permaculture, and tolerable forestry.

• Protect a rights of destiny generations. Adopt a Precautionary Principle. When an activity poses threats of mistreat to tellurian health or a environment, in a deficiency of design systematic accord that it is safe, precautionary measures should be taken. The proponent of an activity, rather than a public, should bear a weight of proof.

• Redirect a Dept of Agriculture to accommodate a needs of tiny farmers to comprehend these goals.

13. Global Challenges

We now live in a tellurian economy with a vast and flourishing tellurian population. These factors emanate economic, open health, and environmental hurdles that do not honour inhabitant borders. How would your administration change inhabitant interests with tellurian team-work when rebellious threats finished pure by science, such as pestilence diseases and meridian change, that cranky inhabitant borders?

Hillary Clinton (D): Many of a greatest—and hardest—challenges confronting a republic extend over a borders and can usually be eventually addressed by tellurian solutions. Climate change is a box in point. And that is given as Secretary of State we towering a purpose of meridian routine in a diplomacy, appointing a country’s initial Special Envoy for Climate Change, creation meridian routine a pivotal partial of a broader attribute with China and other pivotal countries, and assisting to emanate and launch a tellurian Climate and Clean Air Coalition to revoke manly non-carbon meridian pollution.

As a world’s biggest and many absolute economy—and as a second-biggest emitter of hothouse gases and a biggest chronological emitter—the United States has a shortcoming to lead a tellurian response to a meridian challenge. By creation clever swell to revoke hothouse gas emissions during home, President Obama was means to convince and vigour other vital emitters, including China and India, to step up. This twin process, where domestic routine changes helped coax ubiquitous action, led kid a ancestral 195-nation Paris meridian agreement, a initial in a story where any republic concluded to be partial of a resolution to meridian change. 

The Paris agreement is critical, though it is not sufficient on a own. To keep tellurian warming subsequent a twin degrees Celsius threshold and equivocate a misfortune consequences of meridian change, we need to cut emissions by during slightest 80 percent subsequent 2005 levels by mid-century. To get there, we will need to ceaselessly work to urge on a goals set in Paris, both in a United States and around a world. That’s given we contingency work to support some-more purify appetite investment in rising economies, assistance building nations build resilience to a meridian impacts that can’t be avoided, and continue to expostulate purify appetite origination here during home. And we will continue to work on a shared and multilateral basement with a partners, with pivotal countries like China, and with a UNFCCC to strengthen a nation, a planet, and a children’s future. 

When traffic with a conflict of diseases, we contingency be certain to act with caution, and rest on scholarship to surprise a decisions around trade, travel, and treatment. We are absolved to live in a republic that people around a universe aspire to revisit and even immigrate to. It is within a inhabitant seductiveness to consider over a borders, and by a leadership, do all we can to enthuse peace, health, and confidence around a world. In a United States, we need to mangle a cycle in that a possess open health complement is gratified to puncture appropriations for specific epidemics. We can do this by formulating a dedicated Rapid Response Fund to assistance seaside adult a defenses, accelerate enlargement of vaccines and new treatments, and respond some-more effectively to crises. We will also emanate a extensive tellurian health devise that moves over a disease-by-disease puncture indication and seeks to build a robust, volatile tellurian health complement able of fast responding to and finale pandemics. 

Donald Trump: Our best submit to assisting with tellurian issues is to make certain that a United States is on a correct arena economically.  For a past decade we have seen Gross Domestic Product enlargement that has not supposing adequate resources to repair a infrastructure, recapitalize a military, deposit in a preparation complement or secure appetite independence.   We can't take a place as universe personality if we are not healthy adequate to take caring of ourselves.  This means we contingency make certain that we grasp a goals in taxation reform, trade reform, immigration remodel and appetite independence.  A moneyed America is a many softened partner in rebellious tellurian problems that impact this republic achieving a inhabitant objectives. 

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded

Jill Stein (G): We need a unfamiliar routine formed on diplomacy, ubiquitous law and honour for tellurian rights. By strengthening ubiquitous institutions, we lay a grounds for larger team-work on vicious hurdles such as meridian change and pestilence diseases.

14. Regulations

Science is essential to many of a laws and policies that keep Americans protected and secure. How would scholarship surprise your administration’s decisions to add, modify, or mislay sovereign regulations, and how would we enthuse a abounding business zone while safeguarding Americans unprotected to open health and environmental threats?

Hillary Clinton (D): It is essential that environmental, health, and appetite regulations, among other areas, use a best accessible scholarship to beam decision-making, and we am committed to creation certain that continues. For instance, we will have scholarship beam us as we make vicious investments around health care. We will continue to deposit in investigate to serve a bargain of disease, including ramping adult a investment in Alzheimer’s and associated dementias to $2 billion per year, stability Vice President Biden’s Cancer Moonshot, and scaling adult a broader investment in a National Institutes of Health’s check to quarrel all of a diseases of a day. 

My competition in this competition has consistently ignored systematic findings, from his comments about vaccines to his explain that meridian change is a hoax. These dangerous positions not usually put Americans during risk, though can have prolonged tenure impacts on a country’s enlargement and productivity. Science will safeguard a republic continues to progress, and will assistance a supervision use a resources to yield a best probable life for all Americans.  

Donald Trump: This is about balance. We contingency change a abounding economy with conserving a resources and safeguarding a adults from threats.  Science will surprise a decisions on what regulations to keep, revoke or add. A vibrant, clever giveaway marketplace complement will umpire a private sector.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded

Jill Stein (G): We will rest on evidence-based approaches to regulation. Science advisors will play a executive purpose in a administration. We will designate systematic examination panels and committees.

Some running beliefs for a proceed to regulation:

• Protect a rights of destiny generations. Adopt a Precautionary Principle. When an activity poses threats of mistreat to tellurian health or a environment, in a deficiency of design systematic accord that it is safe, precautionary measures should be taken. The proponent of an activity, rather than a public, should bear a weight of proof.

• Redirect investigate supports from hoary fuels into renewable appetite and conservation, as good as other technologies that enthuse a transition to a tolerable civilization.

• Enact stronger environmental probity laws and measures to safeguard that low-income and communities of tone are not disproportionately impacted by deleterious wickedness and other disastrous environmental and health effects.

15. Vaccination

Public health officials advise that we need to take more steps to forestall ubiquitous epidemics from viruses such as Ebola and Zika. Meanwhile, measles is resurgent due to dwindling vaccination rates. How will your administration support vaccine science?

Hillary Clinton (D): Through vaccinations and vaccine science, we am committed to safeguarding a nation’s children, as good as populations worldwide, from spreading illness threats. 

Over a final twin decades, we have finished unusual tellurian gains in shortening childhood illness and deaths by stretched use of vaccines and immunization. The array of childhood deaths from infections such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, and other diseases has dramatically declined in new years, in vast magnitude due to vaccination. We still have a prolonged proceed to go, though globally—with a support of Gavi, UNICEF, a World Health Organization and other ubiquitous organizations—I will work tough to press for a rejecting of these lethal diseases.

At a same time, a new measles outbreaks in California’s Marin and Orange counties remind us that we can't be restored with a possess nation’s vaccine policies.  Measles, for example, stays a vicious matter, murdering roughly 100,000 children annually around a world. As president, we will work closely with a gifted physicians, nurses, and scientists in a US Public Health Service to pronounce out and teach relatives about vaccines, focusing on their unusual lane record in saving lives and indicating out a dangers of not vaccinating a children.  

Additionally, a new outbreaks of Ebola, Zika, and MERS are a wake-up call that we contingency continue to innovate and rise illness countermeasures.  Our scientists have finished good progress. Yet there stays a discouraging “innovation gap” between early proviso vaccine find and industrial-scale prolongation and vaccine delivery. We need to rivet stakeholders opposite industry, non-profits, foundations, and supervision to overpass this opening and coax a enlargement of a new era of vaccines.

Donald Trump: We should teach a open on a values of a extensive vaccination program.  We have been successful with other open use programs and this seems to be of adequate significance that we should put resources opposite this task.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded

Jill Stein (G): Vaccines are a vicious partial of a open health system. Vaccines forestall vicious epidemics that would means mistreat to many people and that is given they are a substructure to a clever open health system. Polio is an vicious example. So is H Flu—a germ that caused vicious illness, including meningitis, in 20,000 children a year in a US, before enlargement of a H influenza vaccine. We need concept health caring as a right to safeguard that everybody has entrance to vicious vaccines. 

Experts like Douglas Diekema, MD MPH contend that a best proceed to overcome insurgency to vaccination is to acknowledge and residence concerns and build trust with wavering parents. To retreat a problem of disappearing vaccination rates, we need to boost trust in a open health authorities and all systematic agencies. We can do that by stealing corporate change from a regulatory agencies to liberate apparent conflicts of seductiveness and uncover skeptics, in this box vaccine-resistant parents, that a belligerent behind vaccination is safeguarding their children’s health, not augmenting boost for curative companies.

16. Space

There is a domestic discuss over America’s inhabitant proceed to space scrutiny and use. What should America’s inhabitant goals be for space scrutiny and earth regard from space, and what stairs would your administration take to grasp them?

Hillary Clinton (D): President Kennedy’s plea in 1962 to go to a Moon within a decade electrified a nation, stirred a prolonged duration of American caring in scholarship and technology, and spurred a era of innovators. 

In a decades since, we have explored a object and any universe in a solar system; mapped a aspect and complicated a atmosphere of Mars and reliable a participation of H2O on a Red Planet; detected new solar systems with Earth-like planets; mapped a placement of galaxies in a universe; celebrated black holes, dim matter, and dim energy; built programs to guard a ozone covering and a inauspicious impact of tellurian meridian change; and identified and mapped near-Earth asteroids as a initial step to strengthen a universe from a vital asteroid impact. The International Space Station stands as a largest and many formidable ubiquitous technological plan in story and has been pivotal to bargain a response of a tellurian physique to prolonged durations in 0 gravity.  And in new years, new companies have sprung adult that offer a guarantee of innovative approaches to transporting load and, eventually, humans in space. Americans have always been pacific to consider big, take risks, and pull forward. These pillars will continue to underpin what America does in space, usually as they conclude who we are as a people.

As president, my administration will build on this progress, enthuse innovation, and allege inspirational, achievable, and affordable space initiatives.  We contingency contend a nation’s caring in space with a module that balances science, record and exploration; strengthen a confidence and a destiny of a universe by ubiquitous partnership and Earth systems monitoring; raise a robotic participation in a solar system; and maximize a impact of a RD and other space module investments by compelling stronger coordination opposite sovereign agencies, and team-work with industry. we will work with Congress to safeguard that NASA has a leadership, appropriation and operational coherence required to work in new ways with industry, fixation importance on inventing and contracting new technologies and efficiencies to get some-more crash for a sire while formulating jobs and flourishing a American economy. 

Today, interjection to a array of successful American robotic explorers, we know some-more about a Red Planet than ever before. A idea of my administration will be to raise this trust even serve and allege a ability to make tellurian scrutiny of Mars a reality. 

As a immature girl, we was so desirous by America’s caring and accomplishments in space that we wrote to NASA about apropos an astronaut. As president, we will assistance enthuse a subsequent era of immature Americans and do what we can to safeguard that we have a world’s many sparkling and modernized space program, one that meets a tip tellurian aspirations in a universe where a sky is no longer a limit.

Donald Trump: Space scrutiny has given so many to America, including extensive honour in a systematic and engineering prowess.  A clever space module will enthuse a children to find STEM educational outcomes and will pierce millions of jobs and trillions of dollars in investment to this country.  The cascading effects of a colourful space module are multitude and can have a positive, constructive impact on a honour and instruction of this country.  Observation from space and exploring over a possess space area should be priorities.  We should also find tellurian partners, given space is not a solitary skill of America.  All humankind advantages from reaching into a stars.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded

Jill Stein (G): We commend a impulse supposing by space scrutiny and so we support:

1. a pacific scrutiny of space

2. space-based systems to guard environmental conditions on Earth

3. measures to safeguard that space record advantages all a people of Earth

Space scrutiny and scholarship are ubiquitous systematic attempts requiring team-work between many nations and peoples opposite borders. The pacific scrutiny of space provides inspiration, education, and essential systematic knowledge. Cooperation on space scholarship and scrutiny is a earnest trail to peace. The US has an event to continue heading in space scholarship while finale space militarization. The US can lead ubiquitous partnership in space scholarship and scrutiny though privatizing outdoor space or branch over space scholarship and scrutiny efforts to corporations.

Climate science, including a investigate of other planets in a solar complement and beyond, is essential for bargain how to residence meridian change on Earth. Space science, exploration, and Earth regard yield tools, technologies, and scholarship to assistance residence not usually meridian change though flooding, drought, storms, famine, and other crises. By focusing US space efforts divided from corporate and troops interests, we can work to emanate assent here on Earth and in space, forestall a deployment of space weapons and instead concentration on technologies to solve problems on Earth, not emanate new ones.

Here are stairs we will take to allege space scrutiny and science:

– Funding STEM preparation and forgiving tyro debt of STEM scholars so they can concentration on scholarship and research.

– signing of a International Treaty for a Demilitarization of Space. 

– Ensuring scientists, not corporate or troops interests, are pushing a space scrutiny and scholarship agenda

– Ensure appropriation of pristine research, for a advantage of all amiability and a planet.

– Work closely with a United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) on ensuring a pacific scrutiny of space.

17. Opioids

There is a flourishing opioid problem in a United States, with comfortless costs to lives, families and society. How would your administration enroll researchers, medical doctors and curative companies in addressing this issue?

Hillary Clinton (D): Our republic is in a grips of a still widespread of drug and ethanol addiction. Twenty-three million Americans humour from addiction, and 52 million Americans over a age of 12 have dissipated medication drugs, including one in 4 teenagers. We contingency work with medical doctors and nurses opposite a republic to yield this emanate on a ground, from how patients are accessing these drugs to how we are ancillary them in recovery. 

To quarrel America’s lethal widespread of drug and ethanol addiction, we have due a $10 billion initiative, and laid out a array of goals to assistance communities opposite a country. We need to raise a Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment retard extend and support new federal-state partnerships targeting prevention, treatment, recovery, and other areas of reform. We contingency elect communities to exercise surety programming for teenagers; assistance people pang from obsession accept ongoing, extensive treatment; and yield initial responders with naloxone, that prevents overdoses from apropos fatal. We contingency also work with those people prescribing tranquil medications, and safeguard they are stealing a correct training in providing these prescriptions. 

Finally, we contingency prioritize reconstruction and diagnosis over jail for low-level and non-violent offenders. Currently, 65 percent of inmates in a jail complement accommodate medical criteria for piece use disorders and over half of inmates humour from a mental health problem. Jail time should not be a surrogate for treatment. Working together, we can quarrel this widespread and safeguard that people opposite a republic are stealing a caring they need to live prolonged and healthy lives. 

Donald Trump: We initial should stop a influx of opioids into a United States.  We can do that and we will in a Trump administration.  As this is a inhabitant problem that costs America billions of dollars in productivity, we should request a resources required to lessen this problem.  Dollars invested in holding caring of this problem will be some-more than paid for with recovered lives and capability that adds to a resources and health of a nation.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded

Jill Stein (G): We will finish a “war on drugs” and route supports currently budgeted for a “war on drugs” toward stretched research, education, conversing and treatment.

18. Ocean Health

There is flourishing regard over a decrease of fisheries and a altogether health of a ocean: scientists guess that 90% of bonds are fished during or over tolerable limits, habitats like coral reefs are threatened by sea acidification, and vast areas of sea and coastlines are polluted. What efforts would your administration make to urge a health of a sea and coastlines and boost a long-term sustainability of sea fisheries?

Hillary Clinton (D): Our coastal and sea resources play a vicious purpose in providing healthful food, good livelihoods, and vicious charge word for a nation. With about 40 percent of a nation’s competition vital in coastal counties, 1.8 million Americans creation their provision from fisheries, and 3 billion people globally contingent on a oceans for a vital apportionment of their protein, we can't means to omit a health of a oceans.

I will continue to redeem and reconstruct U.S. fish bonds by creation sound supervision decisions formed on a best accessible science. The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act laid an vicious substructure for running how we conduct a fisheries.  My administration will work with fishers so that we continue to have a best managed fisheries in a world, and we will conflict efforts in Congress that find to break Magnuson-Stevens or divorce it from a best science.  These stairs will strengthen a livelihoods of today’s fishers and safeguard a health of these resources for generations to come.  

At a same time, we will act globally to residence a fisheries crisis.  Ninety percent of a seafood is imported, creation a United States one of a tip markets for fish from around a world.  Yet, experts guess that adult to 32 percent of that seafood, value adult to $2 billion, comes from “pirate” fishing. This illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing also deprives fishing communities of adult to $23 billion per year and puts honest, overworked American fishers during a waste in a marketplace.  I will work with a industry, and other countries, to exercise clever traceability standards for a seafood from attract to plate.

In addition, we contingency continue to strengthen and revive a coastal medium on that healthy fisheries depend. My administration will work collaboratively opposite government, academia, and courtesy to build solutions that keep a waters clean, a coastal and sea resources healthy, and a communities thriving. 

At a same time, meridian change and CO wickedness is also holding a complicated fee on a oceans.  From oyster farms in Washington State to coral reefs in Hawaii and rising seas in Virginia, warming, acidifying waters are deleterious a resources and a people who count on them. we will make certain America continues heading a tellurian quarrel opposite meridian change, support enlargement of a best meridian science, and indoctrinate sovereign agencies to incorporate that trust into their policies and practices so that we are scheming for a future, not usually responding to a past.

Donald Trump (R): My administration will work with Congress to settle priorities for a supervision and how we will allot a singular mercantile resources.  This proceed will assure that a people’s voices will be listened on this subject and others.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded

Jill Stein (G): Our meridian movement and environmental word skeleton will work to preserve fish bonds and coral reefs. Rapid response to meridian change is a centerpiece of a Stein administration. From cosmetic rabble to sea acidification, we will pierce smartly to residence sea health with or though Congress.

19. Immigration

There is many stream domestic contention about immigration routine and limit controls. Would we support any changes in immigration routine per scientists and engineers who accept their connoisseur grade during an American university? Conversely, what is your opinion of new debate over practice and a H1-B Visa program? 

Hillary Clinton (D): As president, we will quarrel to make certain a United States continues to be a place where people from around a universe can come to pursue their dreams and use their talents to assistance a republic grow and innovate. This includes a gifted scientists and engineers who select to pursue their preparation during American universities. 

Our immigration complement is tormented by visa backlogs and other barriers that forestall high-skilled workers and entrepreneurs from entrance to, staying in, and formulating jobs in America. Far too often, we need gifted people from other countries who are lerned in United States universities to lapse home, rather than stay in here and continue to minister to a economy. As partial of a extensive immigration solution, we should “staple” a immature label to STEM masters and PhDs from accredited institutions—enabling ubiquitous students who finish degrees in these fields to pierce to immature label status. we will also support “start-up” visas that concede tip entrepreneurs from abroad to come to a United States, build companies in technology-oriented globally traded sectors, and emanate some-more jobs and opportunities for American workers. 

In my initial 100 days in office, we will put a check before Congress introducing extensive immigration reform. This check will secure a borders, concentration a coercion resources on aroused criminals, keep families together, and embody reforms to keep and attract talented, learned scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs. 

In addition, there are an estimated 9 million official permanent residents in a republic who are authorised to spin citizens. We need to enthuse a advantages of American citizenship, and liberate a cost barriers to naturalization. we will also work to safeguard that people who immigrate to a republic have a support they need to confederate into their communities. we will emanate a National Office for Immigrant Affairs, and will support affordable formation services by new extend funding. 

Donald Trump (R): Immigration has been one of a cornerstones of my campaign.  The issues brought adult in your doubt are accurately what we should be addressing in immigration reform.  If we concede people in this republic legally to get their educations, we should let them stay if they wish to minister to a economy.  It creates no clarity to flog them out of a republic right after they grasp such unusual goals.  As for a H1-B program, we can't concede companies to abuse this system.  When we have American adults and those vital in a United States legally being pushed out of high essential jobs so that they can be transposed with “cheaper” labor, something is wrong.  The H1-B complement should be employed usually when jobs can't be filled with competent Americans and authorised residents.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded

Jill Stein (G): We support a H1-B Visa program. However, we contingency demeanour during it in a context of altogether immigration policy, trade, mercantile and troops policies. In a vast picture, we are endangered about a tellurian economy in that people have to leave their home countries to find decent jobs. We support some-more usually ubiquitous enlargement and demilitarization, so that people don’t have to go half proceed around a universe to find usually employment.

20. Scientific Integrity

Evidence from scholarship is a surest basement for satisfactory and usually open policy, though that is predicated on a firmness of that justification and of a systematic routine used to furnish it, that contingency be both pure and giveaway from domestic disposition and pressure. How will we enthuse a enlightenment of systematic clarity and burden in government, while safeguarding scientists and sovereign agencies from domestic division in their work? 

Hillary Clinton (D): The scientists we know are women and group of good integrity.  We all have something to learn from a systematic ideals of deferential argument, formed on evidence, to strech an contingent consensus.

The work finished by scientists during sovereign agencies is vicious for moulding a policies on health, environment, food and drug safety, inhabitant security, and many other issues. The systematic and technological information and processes relied on in policymaking contingency be of a tip firmness to provoke open trust in government.  

As president, we will support efforts to safeguard a enlightenment of systematic firmness in any of a science-based agencies, strengthen a credit of supervision research, and enthuse open communication and open engagement. 

I am deeply endangered by a new boost in narrow-minded domestic efforts to meddle in science. we strongly support a giveaway sell of ideas and data, counterpart review, and open entrance to investigate formula and other systematic information, all of that can assistance strengthen science-based routine decisions from undue change from special interests. 

Finally, we trust sovereign policies can do even some-more to strengthen open trust in a firmness of scholarship via a investigate enterprise.  Though really rare, counsel rascal in how scientists use open investigate dollars contingency be exposed, punished, and prevented. We can and will emanate serve incentives to enthuse scientists not usually to contend burden and correctness checks, though also to share data, code, and investigate formula for reuse and support riposte by others. Similarly, self-indulgent systematic claims and blatant conflicts of seductiveness contingency be exposed, punished, and prevented, so that a open can trust systematic conclusions. Finally, we can and should yield serve incentives to forestall foreseeable mistreat to tellurian subjects and dynamically strengthen personal privacy. 

Donald Trump (R): Science is scholarship and contribution are facts.  My administration will safeguard that there will be sum clarity and burden though domestic bias.  The American people merit this and we will make certain this is a enlightenment of my administration.

Gary Johnson (L): This claimant has not nonetheless responded

Jill Stein (G): It is a vital regard that many Americans don’t trust a systematic and regulatory agencies, and intensely hapless that there are stream reasons for this disappearing trust that contingency be addressed.

For example, a stream FDA commissioner allocated by President Obama was a rarely paid consultant for vast curative corporations, as Senator Sanders forked out in hostile his nomination. In a box of Vioxx, a FDA authorized a essential pain reliever that caused adult to 140,000 cases of heart disease, and even tried to overpower a possess scientists who detected this lethal side effect.

The CDC indeed accepts outrageous amounts of income from vast curative corporations, as an review by a British Medical Journal revealed. So many scientists, doctors and watchdog groups have flagged these pure conflicts of seductiveness in a FDA, CDC and other sovereign agencies.

As President we would stop a revolving doorway and purify adult these agencies so that a American people can trust that they’re putting people over profits, and scholarship over lobbying interests.

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