Credit Fred Tanneau/Agence France-Presse â Getty Images
What took them so long?
Itâs not as if some new work suddenly clinched the deal. Mr. Dylan has been recognized by anyone who cares about words â not to mention music â since the 1960s, when he almost immediately earned an adjective as his own literary and musical school: Dylanesque. His most recent album of his own songs was âTempest,â back in 2012; since then he has been paying tribute to the so-called Great American Songbook of pre-rock pop, like his album of Sinatra covers.
But thereâs no question that Mr. Dylan has created a great American songbook of his own: an e pluribus unum of high-flown and down-home, narrative and imagistic, erudite and earthy, romantic and cutting, devout and iconoclastic, finger-pointing and oracular, personal and universal, compassionate and pitiless. His example has taught writers of all sorts â not merely poets and novelists â about strategies of both pinpoint clarity and anyoneâs-guess free association, of telegraphic brevity and ambiguous, kaleidoscopic moods.
A longtime stumbling block for Mr. Dylanâs literary recognition â which eventually didnât matter to the Pulitzers (2008) or the American Academy of Arts and Letters (2013) and now to the Nobels â has been that he is a songwriter, so his words are best heard with his music. Another is that his voluminous output includes some clinkers and throwaways. Both are absolutely true, and so what?
Mr. Dylanâs good stuff, in all its abundance, is the equal â and envy â of countless writers who work strictly on the page. As much as any literary figure to emerge in the 20th century, he has written words that resonate everywhere: quoted by revolutionaries and presidents, hurled by protesters, studied by scholars and taken to heart in countless private moments.
As much as any academically beloved poet â say, Ezra Pound or T. S. Eliot â Mr. Dylan has always placed himself on a literary continuum where allusions focus and amplify meaning. But half a century ago, when guardians of culture were diligently policing boundaries between the purportedly high and low, Mr. Dylan drew his allusions not only from Western literature but also from the blues and the news, gleefully knocking their heads together; in âStuck Inside of Mobile With the Memphis Blues Again,â he put Shakespeare in the alley. He pointed directly toward some of his sources: Woody Guthrie, Robert Johnson, Arthur Rimbaud, the Bible, the Beats and, above all, the anonymous writers and transmitters of folk songs who told the stories they had to tell. He gathered and implied countless others, making him a postmodern pioneer and, eventually, something like a one-man internet. Mr. Dylan instantly became a fountainhead of aphorisms and allusions himself, a writer other writers would build upon until, generations later, his wild innovations were just part of an American heritage.
Itâs a commonplace â but a true one â that thereâs a Dylan line for every occasion, and another commonplace that a stray line of an old Dylan song can suddenly nail a situation decades after it was written: Through the years, his riddles have become prophecies. Meanwhile, the fact that Mr. Dylanâs words are written to be sung, that they are physical emanations of breath and pitch and articulation, often adds an additional discipline: the rigorous edit that is built into an oral tradition. Thereâs no place for parentheses, footnotes or explanations â but there are, of course, rhymes. Lines like these, from âIsis,â combine the matter-of-fact tone of film noir with the rigor of a mathematical proof:
She said, âWhere ya been?â I said, âNo place specialâ
She said, âYou look different.â I said, âWell, not quiteâ
She said, âYou been gone.â I said, âThatâs only naturalâ
She said, âYou gonna stay?â I said, âYeah, I jesâ might.â
Mr. Dylanâs songs do get more mileage, and more shades of meaning, with every inflection he brings to them onstage on his never-ending tour. He can sharpen their barbs, tease out their mixed emotions and infuse them with passion or irony, constantly rescuing them from their own familiarity â constantly recharging his reputation, as if he hadnât already earned it all. But with all Mr. Dylan has written, any song has to be strong, almost monumental, to deserve a place in a set list at all.
Mr. Dylanâs place in literature â the way he drew his very individual, paradigm-shifting radicalism from folk musicâs collective preservation of tradition â was clear long before the literary establishment deigned to recognize him. The Nobel doesnât have to certify Mr. Dylan; half a century of literature has already done that. Still, better late than never.